Some of the most horrific moments were after battle. Doctors and nurses provided medical care to millions of soldiers. Hospitals and aid stations were found in various places, including barns and homes.
Two out of three deaths were caused by disease rather than injury. Because there was no concept of diseases and germs, surgeons did not disinfect their tools in between treating patients. If a wound became infected, the only real treatment was amputation. There were no pain killers for these situations. Soldiers literally had to "bite the bullet" to keep from crying out in pain. The minie ball contributed to many wounds. This round lead ball pierced the skin and shattered bone, leaving a bigger exit hole than an entrance hole.
Women like Clara Barton established the American Red Cross, and Dorothea Dix who was the Superintendent of Army Nurses for the Union worked to make things better at camps and makeshift hospitals. The Sanitation Commission was created to organize drives and provide better nutrition and supplies to soldiers. Advancements in medical practices were made throughout the Civil War. What was learned during the war has contributed greatly to the healthcare of everyone.